Off-the-Shelf Native Components

At the end of last week’s article, we signed off mentioning the possibility of providing two component APIs for the Entity Component System of the Vortex Editor. Although I’m still very much in line with this idea, the more I lean towards a scripting language, the more I am concerned about performance.

I am worried that scripted components might not be able to meet the quota of updating in less that 16.6 ms once we have a few of them in any given scene. 16.6 ms is the time slice we have to update all components and render the scene on the screen in order to achieve 60 FPS.

A native component, on the other hand, could benefit from all the advantages of going through an optimizer compiler and requiring no parameter marshaling when interfacing with Vortex’s C++ API.

In the light of this, what I’ve been considering is providing a rich set of native components that are part of the Vortex API and that a script can attach to Entities. This would provide the advantage of being able to dynamically add and remove behavior to Entities, while still hitting native performance during the update-render loop.

Of course, I’m still very interested in providing a means to create components through scripts, but perhaps these can be used mostly for exploring ideas, and if performance becomes a problem, then the best practice would be to move to a native implementation of the component.

This week, as a dry-run of the Component API, I’ve implemented a simple Rotation Component that will make any Entity spin on its local axes. A custom UI widget in the Vortex Editor allows configuring the speed and rotation axis of the component in realtime, while visualizing the animation in the 3D view.

I’m pretty happy with the results, and I believe this is the way to move forward with the Entity Component System of the Engine.

Next week I will continue working on the Editor and Engine, trying to maximize what you can do out of the box. Stay tuned for more!

Entity Components in the Vortex-Engine

Last week, we got to a point were we can drag and drop an MD2 file into the 3D view and it automatically instantiate an Entity representing the 3D model. Now, because MD2 models support keyframe animation, suppose we wanted to somehow provide a way for this model to be correctly animated…

An example component driving an keyframe animation for a 3D model.

An example component driving an keyframe animation for a 3D model.

The Problem

One way to go about adding animations would be to implement the MD2 keyframe logic inside the Entity class, so that I need only send an update message to the Entity and it will update the vertex data it holds.

Because I can also instantiate Entities from static OBJ files, it doesn’t make much sense for this logic to be part of the Entity. So what could we do then?

Well, again, we could create a sub-class of Entity with the logic that we need for the animation. The problem with this approach is that sooner rather than later, we will have a huge hierarchy of classes where we will need to constantly refactor and add intermediate super-classes in order to have Entities that share some behaviors (but not others) in a way that enables code reuse.

The Entity-Component-System Model

Wouldn’t it be nice if, instead of extending and inheriting code, I could somehow cherry-pick the properties and functionality that I want for my Entities from a set of prebuilt components? Not only could we build a set of off-the-shelf tested and reusable components that we could mix and match, but also, we would be favoring composition over inheritance, effectively eliminating the need for sub-classing altogether!

This is the main idea behind the Entity-Component-System architecture of modern Game Engines, and it has been the main focus of the work in the Engine this week.

The brand new Component architecture allows adding properties (and even behavior!) dynamically to Entities in a flexible way that prevents coupling and encourages code reuse. The idea behind is simple enough: components that are added to entities will get regular update() calls (once per frame) that can then be used to affect the Entity they are attached to or the world around them.

In the image above, the “Knight” Entity has a Md2 Animation Component. This component has its update() function set so that it takes care of updating the Entity’s vertex data according to the animation it’s playing. It can also expose, by means of the Inspector, an UI that the user can access to set the currently playing animation and its properties.

Native vs Scriptable Components

At this time, as the new Component concept is introduced, the only component that the Engine provides out of the box is the Md2 Animation Component. The idea from this point on, however, is for all extra functionality that affects Entities to be implemented as components.

I envision that we will end up supporting two types of components in the future: native components (developed in C, C++ and Objective-C against the Vortex API) and scripted components.

If you have been paying attention to the Editor screenshots I’ve been uploading, you will have noticed that since day one we have had a “scripting” tab sitting alongside the 3D View tab. This is because the idea of exposing the Engine through a scripting interface is something that I’ve been interested in for a very long time. With the Component API taking shape, I think that allowing components to be developed through a scripting language is going to be a feasible option that will open the door for implementing tonnes of new features.

There is still a lot of work ahead for both the Editor and the Engine, but I’m sure that the next version of Vortex, “V3”, is going to be the most significant major update within the 6+ years of the history of the Engine. Stay tuned for more!

MD2 Entities

This week I’ve been working on revamping the old OBJ and MD2 importers to support the new Entity system. I originally wrote these loaders back in 2010 and, although the parser/loader code worked without any changes, I decided to revamp the external interfaces to make it easier to select the correct loader depending on the file type.

Importing a MD2 model with texture into the Vortex Editor.

Importing a MD2 model with texture into the Vortex Editor.

The image above shows how easy it is now to bring a Quake II MD2 model into the editor. We start by importing the files into the asset library. Then drag and drop the MD2 file from the library into the 3D world and -voila- a new Entity is created.

Using the properties panel, we can adjust the Entity’s transformation and set the texture file for the material. This process is definitely much simpler than than what it used to be, back when we had to load the model through code and then feed its vertex arrays into the GL.

The plan for next week is to wrap up MD2 support by implementing better control for the format’s animations, and then we will be off to new better things!

Stay tuned for more!

Bring in the Assets!

This week I worked on a way to bring in external assets into the Editor.

Importing an external image into the editor and texturing a cube.

Importing an external image into the editor and texturing a cube.

The way this works is by means of a new import tool in the UI. Import allows the user to select any set of files to copy into the project’s resource directory. Once in the project, resources are shown in the new Library View from where they can be accessed.

What can you do with the assets you bring into the project?

For 3D assets, when dragged onto the 3D view the Editor will instantiate a new entity. This new entity will appear in the entities list view and can be manipulated like any other entity.

For Image assets, these can be assigned to materials to change the appearance of entities in the scene. The figure above show how we can bring a JPG file into the Editor and use it to texture a box we create from the Entity menu.

Designing the Asset Library UX

I tried different designs for the library view, starting with a simple list that would show the asset’s name, type and preview, but I ultimately decided to simplify the interaction and settled for a tree view.

It was hard to throw away the initial tabular design I implemented, but I believe going with the tree view was ultimately the right choice.

Once I had the library view, the first thing I wanted to try was whether dragging assets from it onto the 3D world and other widgets would be feasible. I thought this feature would be troublesome to land, however, I was very pleased to see the implementation come together rather quickly.

Drag and drop is a great interaction because it prevents taking the user out of context when she wants to assign a value to a widget or other UI element.

Putting the picture together

If we take a step back, we can now start to see how these features are coming together to help bring the WYSIWYG experience to the Editor.

If you recall from our first post in the Vortex Editor series (click here to quickly jump there), one of the main objectives of this project was to allow simplifying the way we assemble scenes for the Vortex Engine.

Having now a Resource Library and a way to visually edit Entity properties, look at how much simpler it is to create a scene from scratch:

  1. First, we start the Editor, click File -> Import Assets.
  2. Then, we select the assets to bring into the project (for instance, a few obj files).
  3. After this, we simply drag the imported obj file from the Library onto the 3D view. This will create a new Entity.
  4. And Finally, we adjust the new Entity’s properties (position, rotation, scale) to our liking and drag image assets to texture them. That’s it!

The whole process is very visual, allowing the user to see the scene at all times and (hopefully) unleashing her artistic creativity by allowing quick improvisation and trial and error. It feels much more fun than having to be tweaking a series of float values intermixed with C++ code and recompiling every time.

Having reached this initial milestone, the plan for next week will be mostly polish work for these features, improving project resource management and further cleaning up the internal architecture.

Stay tuned for more!

Entity transform via the Properties Panel

This week I finished implementing full edition of Entity transformations by means of the properties panel.

Five boxes showcasing different transforms set via the properties panel.

Five boxes showcasing different transforms set via the properties panel.

In the above image, five box instances were dynamically created and then moved, rotated and scaled using nothing but the transform panel. This is a big milestone that will allow, from now on, assemble complete scenes to be rendered with the engine without having to tinker with the transformation values in code.

Now, a common piece of feedback that I’ve been receiving during this series is whether the editor is capable of rendering something other than boxes. Because the editor is powered by the full Vortex Engine, it can load and render a number of file formats out of the box.

With the ability to assemble scenes dynamically, we can now start bringing in external geometry in the form of entities and build our setup from them. This coming week I’m going to be working on better Entity support for external meshes and start bringing them into the editor.

Stay tuned for more!

Transform Inspection in the Vortex Editor

This week I finished implementing the Transform Panel of the properties view. This is a huge step towards providing a WYSIWYG interface to the Vortex Engine!

The now-complete properties panel. Notice how rotation and scale are now correctly displayed.

The now-complete properties panel. Notice how rotation and scale are now correctly displayed.

This work encompassed being able to select any entity and inspect its properties, namely, its position, rotation and scale.

As I described in my previous post, I reworked the way entities store their transforms in order to be able to keep properties separate, only combining them for rendering purposes. Moving entities to the new Transform construct was simpler that I had anticipated, as entities encapsulate and manage the scenegraph nodes that the Vortex renderers expect.

The next step now in the Properties Panel saga is to add editing capabilities to the UI, so that modifying the values presented in the transform will alter the entities in the 3D world.

The only major issue that I see here is that, as I start to add more editing capabilities to the UI, it becomes ever more pressing to start implementing the undo/redo stack. It will be necessary as the Editor becomes more powerful.

This begs the question of the stack commands going through a centralized front controller, as opposed to having each UI component modify entities on its own. Now, a centralized component for actions must be carefully designed, as it can also provide the native backend for an (eventual) engine scripting system – something I’ve also started to research, but that requires a post on its own : )

The plan for this week is then: add “write” capabilities to the properties panel and start implementing the undo/redo stack. Stay tuned for more!

Visual Editing of Transformations through the Vortex Editor UI

This week I started implementing the properties panel (sometimes called the “inspector” panel) for the Vortex Editor.

The redesigned Transformation Panel in the Vortex Editor vertical slice.

The redesigned Transformation Panel in the Vortex Editor vertical slice.

I originally wanted to go with a table design for the UI. I though it would give me the flexibility of adding as many editable entries as necessary. I even implemented a mockup in the UI that can be seen in previous screenshots of the Editor.

The problem that I found however was that both, the difference in font and text spacing, between the left and right panels of the UI made the layout look uneven. I knew I wanted something more symmetrical for what’s essentially the “home” view of the Editor, so I came up with a new design that can be seen in the image above.

Here, the Transform Panel consists in a custom UI component that is created dynamically and parented to the docked panel on the right. This provides a more uniform layout with two advantages: first, any number of property panels can be created and they will be nicely stacked one after the other in the panel (this will be useful in the future). Second, because the properties panel is detachable, it still allows the user to customize the Editor layout to her liking.

Now, one minor roadblock I’ve encountered from the engine standpoint for fully realizing this idea is the way Vortex currently represents Entity transformations.

All transformations in Vortex are represented as a 4×4 Matrix. The driving force behind this decision was to avoid having to convert between rotation representations at render time, thus saving some time down the line at during any scenegraph traversal passes.

So what does a generic transformation matrix look like in Vortex?

Matrices are a 4×4 list of values representing values in the homogeneous coordinate system:

  \begin{array}{cccc}  sr_{00} & r_{01} & r_{02} & t_{x} \\  r_{10} & sr_{11} & r_{12} & t_{y} \\  r_{20} & r_{21} & sr_{33} & t_{z} \\  0 & 0 & 0 & 1  \end{array}


In this matrix, (tx, ty, tz) correspond to the translation component of the Entity and we can easily extract this information to populate the Transformation Panel. But what happens with the rotation and scale?

Rotation and Scale are mixed in together in the matrix (represented by the overlapping sr components), so we can’t really extract the original scale and rotation that generated this matrix. This means that we will only be able to show and edit the position of the Entity and not its rotation or scale.

This is a limitation that has to be lifted.

The plan is to provide a higher-level contraption for describing transformations. Indeed a Transform class that will keep separate tabs for position, rotation and scale but will also provide a convenience method for computing on-demand the transform matrix that this transform represents.

A tentative interface for the Transform class could be:

namespace vtx {
class Transform
    void setPosition( float x, float y, float z );
    void setRotationEuler( float rx, float ry, float rz );
    void setScale( float sx, float sy, float sz );

    vtx::Matrix4 matrix() const; // used for the rendering pass

    // Other getter methods omitted

I think this will be a good change for the Engine. Working with Entities using a position-rotation-scale mindset instead of having to the deal with the cognitive overhead of thinking in terms of representing these as matrix operations will help users be more productive (and save precious keystrokes).

This coming week I will be working on finalizing this implementation and finally exposing full Entity transformation control through the UI. Stay tuned!

The GLSL Shader Editor

This week we take a break from work in the Vortex Editor to revisit an older personal project of mine: the GLSL Shader Editor, a custom editor for OpenGL shaders.

The UI of my custom shader editor.

The UI of my custom shader editor.

The idea of the editor was to allow very fast shader iteration times by providing an area where a shader program could be written and then, by simply pressing Cmd+B (Ctrl+B on Windows), the shader source would be complied and hot-loaded into the running application.

This concept of hot-loading allowed seeing the results of the new shading instantly, without having to stop the app and without even having to save the shader source files. This allowed for very fast turn-around times for experimenting with shader ideas.

As the image above shows, the UI was divided in two main areas: an Edit View and a Render View.

The Edit View consisted in a tabbed component with two text areas. These text areas (named “Vertex” and “Fragment”) are where you could write your custom vertex and fragment shaders respectively. The contents of these two would be the shader source that was be compiled and linked into a shader program.

The shader program would be compiled by pressing Cmd+B and, if no errors were found, then it would be hot-loaded and used to shade the model displayed in the Render View.

The status bar (showing “OK” in the image), would display any shader compilation errors as reported by the video driver.

The application had a number of built-in primitives and it also allowed importing in models in the OBJ format. It was developed on Ubuntu Linux and supported MS Windows and OS X on a number of different video cards.

Application Features

  • Built entirely in C++.
  • Supports Desktop OpenGL 2.0.
  • Qt GUI.
  • Supported platforms: (Ubuntu) Linux, MS Windows, OSX.
  • Diverse set of visual primitives and OBJ import support.
  • Very efficient turn-around times by hot-loading the shader dynamically – no need to save files!
  • GLSL syntax highlighting.
  • Docked, customizable UI.

Interestingly, this project was developed at around the same time that I got started with the Vortex Engine, therefore, it does not use any of Vortex’s code. This means that all shader compiling and loading, as well as all rendering was developed from scratch for this project.

I’ve added a project page for this application (under Personal Projects in the blog menu). I’ve also redesigned the menu to list all different personal projects that I’ve either worked on or that I’m currently working on, so please feel free to check it out.

Next week, we’ll be going back to the Vortex Editor! Stay tuned for more!

Basic Entity Instancing and Positioning

This week, I’ve continued working on the Editor, adding Entity instancing through the UI and (simple) position editing.

An animated gif showing very basic entity creation and positioning in the Vortex Editor.

An animated gif showing very basic entity creation and positioning in the Vortex Editor.

The image above features a rough preview that helps show how any number of Entities can be created now. The next steps will be to refine this to add Mouse-based selection, as well as a more comprehensive UI that allows for finer control over Entity position, rotation and scale.

Once these and a few more Editor features are in, I will create a higher quality video showcasing the creation of an environment by means of Entity editing.

Stay tuned for more!

Entity Management in Vortex

This week I started working on the foundation for entity management in the Vortex Editor.

“Entities” are a new concept I’m introducing in the next version of the Vortex Engine (V3), whose design responds to the larger effort of simplifying the engine’s API.

Screenshot showing updated UI for Entity Management.

The Updated UI of the Editor.

Entities in Vortex are high level objects that have a transformation, a material, a mesh and (of course) a name.

Down the line, the plan is that entities expose more properties. Custom shading and executable code are strong candidates that come to mind. As part of the Vortex Editor vertical slice, however, basic properties for placing entities in 3D space and drawing them are all we need.

Entities are also first-class citizens in the Editor, so I reworked the Editor’s UI to add two new panels: an entity list view and a property editor. The image below shows a scene setup with two box entities. Note their names listed in the panel on the left.

Screenshot showing updated UI for Entity Management.

Entity management in the Vortex Editor.

Because I wanted the contents of the entity list to be taken directly from the entity management component in the engine, I had to refactor the internal architecture of the Editor a bit. As it was standing before, the OpenGL View was the one handling the Editor Controller and -by extension- the engine.

This created a weird situation where the entity list view’s controller would have to go through the GL View to query the existing entities. This had to be fixed.

Thankfully, because the Editor Controller was fully encapsulating the engine, it was easy to move the instance of this class upwards in the object hierarchy without introducing undesired dependencies to Vortex’s core in UI classes.

All in all, the whole rework didn’t take as big of an effort as I had originally anticipated, and I’m pretty satisfied with the results.

The next step now is to expose entity instancing to the Editor UI! Stay tuned for more!